[Linux] ansible的使用

Posted by 胡伟煌 on 2018-05-01

1. 安装

以centos为例。

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yum install -y ansible

2. 配置

默认配置目录在/etc/ansible/,主要有以下两个配置:

  • ansible.cfg:ansible的配置文件
  • hosts:配置ansible所连接的机器IP信息

2.1. ansible.cfg

2.2. hosts

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# This is the default ansible 'hosts' file.
#
# It should live in /etc/ansible/hosts
#
# - Comments begin with the '#' character
# - Blank lines are ignored
# - Groups of hosts are delimited by [header] elements
# - You can enter hostnames or ip addresses
# - A hostname/ip can be a member of multiple groups

# Ex 1: Ungrouped hosts, specify before any group headers.

## green.example.com
## blue.example.com
## 192.168.100.1
## 192.168.100.10

# Ex 2: A collection of hosts belonging to the 'webservers' group

## [webservers]
## alpha.example.org
## beta.example.org
## 192.168.1.100
## 192.168.1.110

# If you have multiple hosts following a pattern you can specify
# them like this:

## www[001:006].example.com

# Ex 3: A collection of database servers in the 'dbservers' group

## [dbservers]
##
## db01.intranet.mydomain.net
## db02.intranet.mydomain.net
## 10.25.1.56
## 10.25.1.57

# Here's another example of host ranges, this time there are no
# leading 0s:

## db-[99:101]-node.example.com

[k8s]
192.168.201.52
192.168.201.53
192.168.201.54
192.168.201.55
192.168.201.56
192.168.201.57

3. ansible的命令

命令格式为:ansible [options]

  • host-pattern:即hosts文件中配置的集群名称
  • options:命令操作符

例如:ansible k8s -a ‘uname -r’

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[root@k8s-master ansible]# ansible k8s -a 'uname -r'
172.16.201.56 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.55 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.54 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.53 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.52 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.57 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

具体的命令信息:

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Usage: ansible <host-pattern> [options]

Define and run a single task 'playbook' against a set of hosts

Options:
-a MODULE_ARGS, --args=MODULE_ARGS
module arguments
--ask-vault-pass ask for vault password
-B SECONDS, --background=SECONDS
run asynchronously, failing after X seconds
(default=N/A)
-C, --check don't make any changes; instead, try to predict some
of the changes that may occur
-D, --diff when changing (small) files and templates, show the
differences in those files; works great with --check
-e EXTRA_VARS, --extra-vars=EXTRA_VARS
set additional variables as key=value or YAML/JSON, if
filename prepend with @
-f FORKS, --forks=FORKS
specify number of parallel processes to use
(default=5)
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-i INVENTORY, --inventory=INVENTORY, --inventory-file=INVENTORY
specify inventory host path or comma separated host
list. --inventory-file is deprecated
-l SUBSET, --limit=SUBSET
further limit selected hosts to an additional pattern
--list-hosts outputs a list of matching hosts; does not execute
anything else
-m MODULE_NAME, --module-name=MODULE_NAME
module name to execute (default=command)
-M MODULE_PATH, --module-path=MODULE_PATH
prepend colon-separated path(s) to module library
(default=[u'/root/.ansible/plugins/modules',
u'/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules'])
-o, --one-line condense output
--playbook-dir=BASEDIR
Since this tool does not use playbooks, use this as a
subsitute playbook directory.This sets the relative
path for many features including roles/ group_vars/
etc.
-P POLL_INTERVAL, --poll=POLL_INTERVAL
set the poll interval if using -B (default=15)
--syntax-check perform a syntax check on the playbook, but do not
execute it
-t TREE, --tree=TREE log output to this directory
--vault-id=VAULT_IDS the vault identity to use
--vault-password-file=VAULT_PASSWORD_FILES
vault password file
-v, --verbose verbose mode (-vvv for more, -vvvv to enable
connection debugging)
--version show program's version number and exit

Connection Options:
control as whom and how to connect to hosts

-k, --ask-pass ask for connection password
--private-key=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE, --key-file=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE
use this file to authenticate the connection
-u REMOTE_USER, --user=REMOTE_USER
connect as this user (default=None)
-c CONNECTION, --connection=CONNECTION
connection type to use (default=smart)
-T TIMEOUT, --timeout=TIMEOUT
override the connection timeout in seconds
(default=10)
--ssh-common-args=SSH_COMMON_ARGS
specify common arguments to pass to sftp/scp/ssh (e.g.
ProxyCommand)
--sftp-extra-args=SFTP_EXTRA_ARGS
specify extra arguments to pass to sftp only (e.g. -f,
-l)
--scp-extra-args=SCP_EXTRA_ARGS
specify extra arguments to pass to scp only (e.g. -l)
--ssh-extra-args=SSH_EXTRA_ARGS
specify extra arguments to pass to ssh only (e.g. -R)

Privilege Escalation Options:
control how and which user you become as on target hosts

-s, --sudo run operations with sudo (nopasswd) (deprecated, use
become)
-U SUDO_USER, --sudo-user=SUDO_USER
desired sudo user (default=root) (deprecated, use
become)
-S, --su run operations with su (deprecated, use become)
-R SU_USER, --su-user=SU_USER
run operations with su as this user (default=None)
(deprecated, use become)
-b, --become run operations with become (does not imply password
prompting)
--become-method=BECOME_METHOD
privilege escalation method to use (default=sudo),
valid choices: [ sudo | su | pbrun | pfexec | doas |
dzdo | ksu | runas | pmrun | enable ]
--become-user=BECOME_USER
run operations as this user (default=root)
--ask-sudo-pass ask for sudo password (deprecated, use become)
--ask-su-pass ask for su password (deprecated, use become)
-K, --ask-become-pass
ask for privilege escalation password

Some modules do not make sense in Ad-Hoc (include, meta, etc)

4. ansible-playbook

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Usage: ansible-playbook [options] playbook.yml [playbook2 ...]

Runs Ansible playbooks, executing the defined tasks on the targeted hosts.

Options:
--ask-vault-pass ask for vault password
-C, --check don't make any changes; instead, try to predict some
of the changes that may occur
-D, --diff when changing (small) files and templates, show the
differences in those files; works great with --check
-e EXTRA_VARS, --extra-vars=EXTRA_VARS
set additional variables as key=value or YAML/JSON, if
filename prepend with @
--flush-cache clear the fact cache for every host in inventory
--force-handlers run handlers even if a task fails
-f FORKS, --forks=FORKS
specify number of parallel processes to use
(default=5)
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-i INVENTORY, --inventory=INVENTORY, --inventory-file=INVENTORY
specify inventory host path or comma separated host
list. --inventory-file is deprecated
-l SUBSET, --limit=SUBSET
further limit selected hosts to an additional pattern
--list-hosts outputs a list of matching hosts; does not execute
anything else
--list-tags list all available tags
--list-tasks list all tasks that would be executed
-M MODULE_PATH, --module-path=MODULE_PATH
prepend colon-separated path(s) to module library
(default=[u'/root/.ansible/plugins/modules',
u'/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules'])
--skip-tags=SKIP_TAGS
only run plays and tasks whose tags do not match these
values
--start-at-task=START_AT_TASK
start the playbook at the task matching this name
--step one-step-at-a-time: confirm each task before running
--syntax-check perform a syntax check on the playbook, but do not
execute it
-t TAGS, --tags=TAGS only run plays and tasks tagged with these values
--vault-id=VAULT_IDS the vault identity to use
--vault-password-file=VAULT_PASSWORD_FILES
vault password file
-v, --verbose verbose mode (-vvv for more, -vvvv to enable
connection debugging)
--version show program's version number and exit

Connection Options:
control as whom and how to connect to hosts

-k, --ask-pass ask for connection password
--private-key=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE, --key-file=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE
use this file to authenticate the connection
-u REMOTE_USER, --user=REMOTE_USER
connect as this user (default=None)
-c CONNECTION, --connection=CONNECTION
connection type to use (default=smart)
-T TIMEOUT, --timeout=TIMEOUT
override the connection timeout in seconds
(default=10)
--ssh-common-args=SSH_COMMON_ARGS
specify common arguments to pass to sftp/scp/ssh (e.g.
ProxyCommand)
--sftp-extra-args=SFTP_EXTRA_ARGS
specify extra arguments to pass to sftp only (e.g. -f,
-l)
--scp-extra-args=SCP_EXTRA_ARGS
specify extra arguments to pass to scp only (e.g. -l)
--ssh-extra-args=SSH_EXTRA_ARGS
specify extra arguments to pass to ssh only (e.g. -R)

Privilege Escalation Options:
control how and which user you become as on target hosts

-s, --sudo run operations with sudo (nopasswd) (deprecated, use
become)
-U SUDO_USER, --sudo-user=SUDO_USER
desired sudo user (default=root) (deprecated, use
become)
-S, --su run operations with su (deprecated, use become)
-R SU_USER, --su-user=SU_USER
run operations with su as this user (default=None)
(deprecated, use become)
-b, --become run operations with become (does not imply password
prompting)
--become-method=BECOME_METHOD
privilege escalation method to use (default=sudo),
valid choices: [ sudo | su | pbrun | pfexec | doas |
dzdo | ksu | runas | pmrun | enable ]
--become-user=BECOME_USER
run operations as this user (default=root)
--ask-sudo-pass ask for sudo password (deprecated, use become)
--ask-su-pass ask for su password (deprecated, use become)
-K, --ask-become-pass
ask for privilege escalation password

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